This thesis discusses the medical use of marijuana and side effects of marijuana. The pharmacology of marijuana encompasses its composition, nature, origin, and pharmacokinetics. Marijuana is an extract of the plant Cannabis sativa and it consists of more than 421 components and 60 active cannabinoids. The two common cannabinoids are THC and cannabidiol (CBD). CBD acts as an antagonist to the effects of THC at the cannabinoid receptors. THC is a volatile viscous oil, has a tri-cyclic 21-carbon structure, high lipid solubility, low water solubility, and a pKa of 10.6. The pharmacokinetics of marijuana discusses its metabolism, distribution, and absorption. THC is metabolized in the liver and is absorbed via smoking, vaporization, and ingestion of edible products. The effects of marijuana may be dangerous as it persists in the body for a long time, due to its lipophilic property.
SIDE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA
Besides the medical uses of marijuana, it also has several side effects. The negative acute effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations or tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. The Chronic Effects of marijuana include mood disturbances, exacerbation of psychotic disorders, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome and neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Because of the persistence in the body, marijuana can cause highly potent mental, physical, and toxic effects in the users that are hard to control or predict. This is a component of the pharmacokinetics of marijuana. Besides, Marijuana causes dependence, tolerance, and addiction. The attempt to discontinue its use causes withdrawal symptoms consisting of anxiety, depression, decreased appetite, headaches, insomnia, irritability, muscle tension, nausea, nightmares, and unpleasant vivid dreams. Some side effects are “feeling high,” dizziness, sedation, and dysphoria.
MEDICAL USE OF MARIJUANA
The pharmacology of medical marijuana also encompasses its medicinal uses. They are: Pain management; The cannabinoids in marijuana may reduce pain by altering pain perception pathways in the brain, thus can treat conditions that cause chronic pain: arthritis, endometriosis, migraine. Minimizes cancer treatment side effects, like loss of appetite. Reduced inflammation; CBD in marijuana help reduce inflammation and this may benefit inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis. The pharmacokinetics of marijuana must be considered during administration and dosage. Treatment of Neurological and mental disorders: anxiety, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sleep management; The relaxing effects of marijuana may help improve sleep disorders, such as insomnia. In conclusion, despite the negative effects of marijuana, it is becoming an important component in the medical industry.