This research paper reviews the educational policies and legislation in China. Educational policies in China continues to experience transformation coupled with ambitious plans for national, regional, and system changes. These policies range from compulsory education to higher education. Educational development in China entails quantitative growth in educational access to quality improvement aiming at world-class status. There are three central tasks for Chinese policymakers regarding education in China since 1985. These are a solidified nine-year compulsory education system, an enhanced TVET system, and a more autonomous higher education system. The approaches for the implementation of these areas include standardization, diversification, decentralization, and marketization of education in China.
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POLICY THEMES FOR EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA
Educational development in China consists of four themes. One is equality in terms of a democratic mission of education for every citizen. The second is quality in terms of individual and social productivity. The third theme for education in China is efficiency as a national priority based on practicality. The last is the rejuvenation of the nation for nation-building and global status. On 29th May 2001, the State Council announced the decision on the reform and development of basic education. Since then, the bases for educational policies in China are equality, quality, efficiency, and rejuvenation. Lastly, the latest policy is the Thirteenth Five-year National Plan (2016–2020) for Education.
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RATIONALITY AND CHALLENGES IN EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN CHINA
Many people criticize the educational policies in China as unrealistic and weak in terms of the explanation and evaluation of the policy process. The idea of rationality disregards the bureaucratic, hierarchical, and political nature of educational institutions. The ideology also fails to recognize that policies regarding education in China benefit only specific groups of people. Data about educational costs and benefits is also inaccurate in most circumstances. This may be due to incomplete or biased information and other uncertainties in educational settings. This limits the extent of educational development in China. This is particularly true in light of China’s massive size in terms of both population and geographical distribution.
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